Hydraulic systems are a part of a lot of different machines that we use in construction and transportation. Diggers, cranes and bulldozers all have robust hydraulic systems that can move massive loads.

The components of a hydraulic system are critical to the operation of a machine. Without proper maintenance, these parts can fail and cause serious problems for the machine.


The pump is a critical part of every hydraulic system. It creates a pressurized fluid that transfers force to motors (rotational) and rams (linear). This pressure is then sent through pipes to other components within the system.

The basic hydraulic system is comprised of seven primary components, including a reservoir oil tank, pipes, pumps, power source, actuators, valves and filters. Each component plays a key role in ensuring that the entire system functions properly.

One of the most important components of a pump is the pressure relief valve. This valve limits the system's maximum pressure and opens when it exceeds a pre-set value.

Another important pump element is the piping that connects the pump's inlet and outlet. Depending on the pump type, the piping can be made of a variety of materials and designs.

There are also a few types of valves that are available. These include a pressure switch, float switches and a diaphragm switch.

These are used to detect water pressure and to turn on the pump when it reaches a certain level. This way, the pump can move the water to a specific area.

The pump can be operated in a range of ways depending on the design and the speed of the motor. This means that the pump can work efficiently for a wide range of tasks.

A pump is usually rated by its horsepower, volumetric flow rate, inlet suction in metres of head and outlet pressure in metres of head. This allows engineers to determine the right pump for a particular application.

A filter is also important for a hydraulic system, and it removes foreign matter from the fluid that can cause problems. Filters are effective at removing tiny metal particles that may get into the hydraulic fluid during normal wear and tear of valves, pumps, and other components. Other filters, such as strainers, are also common in a hydraulic system to screen out larger particles.


A hydraulic valve is an essential component of a hydraulic system, regulating the flow of fluid. They are used to control the speed of hydraulic cylinders and motors, as well as other actuators that require pressure control or flow control.

These valves can be either manually operated or electronic/pneumatically actuated. Generally, manual operated valves use a plunger that is fixed on a handle and then rotated by hand to open and close the valve.

Valves can also be electronically actuated by solenoids. These can operate in linear or rotary modes, depending on the type of solenoid.

Hydraulic directional control valves are used to route hydraulic fluid in a circuit or system to various devices as needed. These valves shift between discrete positions and can shift into intermediate states that can control a device's speed, direction, or acceleration.

Valve types are chosen based on the function, size, actuating technique, and remote-control capability needed for the hydraulic system. In addition, the selection of valves also considers the specific service conditions and the hydraulic fluid to be used.

For example, a directional control valve may be needed to shift between the open and closed states, which will affect the speed of an actuator. It can also be needed to adjust the flow rate, which will vary by altering the flow area across the valve.

There are many different kinds of directional control valves, including bang-bang, proportional, and float-type. All of these are important components of a hydraulic system, and they all perform different functions.


Hydraulic systems rely on pressurized fluids for power generation, making them ideal for heavy lifting or rugged tasks. For this reason, hydraulic system components are common in many industries.

A hydraulic system contains various components that facilitate fluid transport, heat transfer, pressure control, energy creation and more. It’s important to understand each part of a hydraulic system, so you can make sure they’re working together properly and safely.

One of the most basic components in a hydraulic system is the motor, which is used to apply force to fluids and other equipment. The word “motor” comes from the Classical Latin movere, meaning “to move,” and it’s used to describe machinery that powers motion.

The motor is made up of a pump, hoses and valves that all work to supply pressure to the correct components within the system. The pump converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy, and then the hoses transfer that pressure to the motors (rotational force) or rams (linear force).

A reservoir is used to store hydraulic oil and help it cool, settle solid contaminants and aid in the release of air and moisture. It also helps the oil to keep its purity for optimal system operation.

Valves are important in hydraulic systems because they help control the flow of fluid and direct it to actuators that create motion. They open and close passage-ways for fluid to flow through the system, and they can be controlled by machine operators to enable different parts of a large machine to perform certain jobs at specific times.

There are a variety of different types of valves, including check valves, non-return valves and directional control valves. These valves are a critical part of any hydraulic system because they allow the fluid to flow in only one direction. If they aren’t in place, the system won’t function correctly.


The hydraulic cylinder is a component that produces linear actuation. It combines pressure from the pump with a piston to force a rod to extend or retract. The size of the piston determines the amount of force that can be exerted.

A cylinder’s linear force magnitude is the system fluid pressure times the piston’s effective area. This is a simple equation that can be used to calculate the forces a cylinder can produce, even when friction and other real-world losses occur.

Typically, the hydraulic cylinder’s barrel or tube is made from steel, though more robust materials are available for applications that require greater strength. This is important because it needs to withstand the high pressures involved in working with hydraulic fluid.

There are many different types of cylinders, but they usually have a single or double acting design. A single acting cylinder has one chamber that receives pressurized fluid, while a double acting cylinder has two.

The rod of a hydraulic cylinder is usually hollow, but it can also be made to sense the position of the piston through a process called position sensing. This eliminates the need for a hollow rod and allows for a more efficient hydraulic cylinder.

Piston seals are another essential component of a hydraulic cylinder. They create a sealing force against the inner wall of the cylinder and keep pressurized fluid from flowing over the piston head into the opposite chamber. This prevents the pressure on one side from escaping and creating a rod extension or retracting.

Specialized rod seals are designed to handle more extreme variations in system pressure. They can also be equipped with a back-up ring to protect the seal from high pressure, and they can have an extremely tight closure to prevent thin hydraulic fluid from leaking out.


Hydraulic systems utilize the power of a liquid fluid to perform mechanical tasks. The components of a hydraulic system include a reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valves and actuators. The components are connected by pipes, tubes or hoses so that the fluid can flow to and from them.

A fluid is any substance that flows or deforms under applied shear stress. Liquids and gases are all fluids, but solids are incompressible, which means they don’t squish or compress when pressure is applied to them.

It’s important to understand how fluids work before learning about the components of a hydraulic system. One of the reasons that hydraulics are more efficient than other power systems is because they don’t use many moving parts, allowing for greater reliability and efficiency.

Another reason that hydraulics are more efficient than other power system is because they can deliver more force and torque to heavier loads. This is because the pressure that a hydraulic fluid can create can produce higher levels of force and torque than other mechanical power systems.

The force that a hydraulic system can produce is due to Pascal’s law, which states that the pressure exerted by a confined fluid acts undiminished in all directions and exerts equal forces in all directions. This applies to both large and small pistons in a hydraulic cylinder.

A hydraulic system uses the fluid to transfer energy from a pump to a cylinder and then back to the pump, creating fluid power. This energy is converted back into mechanical energy at the cylinder through a valve that controls the flow of the fluid. This process is called force multiplication, and it’s how a hydraulic system can generate more force with less power input than other systems.